The challenges of process validation for medical 3d-printing

Process validation is a challenge for all engineers and all processes, but for 3d printing engineers, the challenge is even more significant. Although there are companies that have validated their 3d-print process, the knowledge is often kept secret. In this article, I share with you our experience. We are also learning, so we love hearing your comments and contributions.

3D printing processes must follow the same process validation steps as any other production process. For once, batch sizes are usually, and shapes may vary. There are different 3D printing processes, such as SLS, SLA, FDM and bioprinting, each having its own challenges.

Before starting with the validation, one needs to define the specifications, including the tolerances of the device. The specifications depend on the device’s materials, use and shape. Examples are dimension, mass, functionality, mechanical strength etc. Scanners and software to do Quality Control are readily available on the market, but an old-fashioned calliper still works wonders. Collecting, analysing and trending production data is a requirement when producing medical devices, also with a 3D printing process.

Both the FDA and ISO13485 require that all processes producing medical devices or parts thereof a regimen of process validation as part of the overall quality system.

Before starting with the process validation, the process should be straightforward. The 3d-printing process entails much more than just the printing itself. The process is divided into a software workflow and a printing workflow. The workflow depends on the printed devices and the 3d-printing techniques, but here you can find an example.

Software Workflow

So the first step is the validation of the software workflow. Different workflows are possible but below is described a viable and typical software workflow.

A medical scan (e.g. CT or MRI scan) results in a DICOM file. The exciting part of the scan is selected using rendering techniques. A device is designed using CAD software to fit the patient specifically with the DICOM data as input. This file is exported in a format that slicing software can slice (G-code file). The sliced data is fed to the 3d printer.

3D-Printing workflow

The 3D printing workflow starts with the transfer of the G-code file to the 3d-printer. The material is fed into the printer (e.g. the filament, powder or resin), and the printer can start printing. When the print is finished, please remove it from the building plate/powder bed. The post-printing activities could entail:

  1. cleaning of powder
  2. washing with IPA
  3. post-curing or sintering
  4. smoothing surfaces

But most importantly, the operator and Quality Control need to check the quality of the print. Dimensional and visual inspections are the most common quality control checks.

Software workflow validation

The software workflow must be validated. First, all software programs used in this workflow need to be validated. GAMP 5 guide is a commonly used guide to validate the software. This article will not go into detail on software validation.

Although software validation is most important, the complete workflow process can be validated during the PQ phase.

validation of the 3d-printing workflow

The exact test plan for validation is for every workflow different, but some theses to consider are:

  1. Risk analysis (use/class of device, contamination risk, critical functionality parameters, shelf life, stability, the safety of operators, users, patients, etc.)
  2. product specifications
  3. biological considerations (e.g. degradation behaviour of the resorbable implant)
  4. workflow
  5. material properties

Critical parameters

The critical process parameters for 3d printing depend on the technology you choose.

For FDM (Filament Diffusion Modeling), the process should be validated for every type of material used. Process parameters to consider are

  • temperature and humidity of the environment
  • processing temperature
  • printing speed
  • layer thickness, layer adhesion
  • movement of x-y position. For example, the maximum degree of overhang in any design should be determined

For SLA, the process settings are different, but also here; all process settings should be validated for each material

  • material temperature
  • temperature and humidity of the environment
  • accuracy
  • laser technology, the age of laser source

Sterilisation validation

Like all medical devices, if a sterile product is required (e.g. implants), the sterilisation process must also be validated. As batch sizes are much smaller (vary from 1 to a couple of dozen prints per batch), validation of the sterilisation process should also be adjusted. Often three batches are used for sterilisation validation, but one might choose to validate more batches with these small numbers.

Validation plan

A validation plan could be the IQ Q of the 3d-printer and the OQ and PQ of printing a specific (group of) products. Examples of this product group are all surgical guides for maxillofacial operations.

The IQ is not different from most equipment IQs.

The Engineering study is a challenging part. Choosing the critical parameters (which parameters are crucial and which are not or less critical). Designing the DOE

The equipment OQ could be the correct printing of a standard model

The process OQ could be the repeatedly correct printing of a group of different prints using a specific material. This could be done in different settings (high, midpoint, low). High could mean high temperature and high speed versus low temperature and low rate. The importance is to choose settings in different corners of the processing window.

The PQ run should consist of the whole process run, including the software workflow, 3d printing process, post-printing activities, packaging, and sterilisation. The printing run could consist of printing one or several prints at standard settings by different operators, repeated three times. Statistics should show high-quality parts and low variation (high Cpk).


One of the validation requirements is the availability of the necessary SOPs (standard operating procedures), setting sheets etc. Procedures/work instructions should be made for:

  1. start-up, running and shut-down procedures for the 3d printing process
  2. maintenance of the 3d-printer
  3. Quality control (in-process control or IPC, visual or dimensional inspections, etc.)
  4. Control of print files and firmware
  5. A procedure for handling bad prints and the disposition of these prints
  6. Setting sheet with the allowable print settings
  7. work instructions on post-printing activities
  8. Packaging and packaging materials
  9. Sterilisation
  10. Storage and transport
  11. material specifications (filament or resin, packaging materials)
  12. product specification (with details of the device, QC, packaging, storage labelling etc.)

About Sandra de Vos

Sandra de Vos has been working with (polymeric) medical devices for over 12 years now. She has set up a Quality Management System (QMS) from scratch to ISO 13485 certification, which included product development (DHF file), Risk analysis and process development (process and product validation). She is a certified Lead Auditor.

Currently, she is the founder and CEO of Vosfox Medical. Vosfox Medical offers contract manufacturing services (CMO) for medical device companies.

Our CMO services include using our facilities and support to develop the production process and make it ready for clinical trials. We offer ISO Class 7 cleanroom, QA support, production process development and validation support, etc. We have several 3D printers in the cleanroom and produce medical-grade filaments (for FDM printing).

You can stay as involved as you wish and outsource what you want.

Please visit our website (, mail me (, or call +31-650281838. You can also comment on the article and help me improve this and future articles.